E-Jurnal Borneo Akademika









ISSN PRINT: 2462-1641
ISSN ONLINE: 2735-2250
Issue : Oct 2020 - FRD
Issue : Sep 2020 - SIVIIC
Issue : Jul 2020
Issue : Mar 2020
Issue : Dec 2019/Jan 2020
Issue : Jul 2019
Issue : Jan 2017
Issue : Jul 2016
Issue : Jan 2016
Jurnal Borneo Akademika (BA) is published by Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Cawangan Sabah. It is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal published two times a year. This multidisciplinary journal is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas on theory, research and research-supported practices. BA welcomes submission of research-oriented manuscripts that make significant contributions to advancing knowledge and understanding of various disciplines of interest from education, applied linguistics, social sciences, literature, tourism, accounting, communication, anthropology, policy studies to sciences. BA accepts manuscripts written in Bahasa Melayu and English.
ABSTRACT
Words have a habit of appearing in recurrent patterns. These recurring patterns may take the form of phrasal verbs, collocations, and other multi-word expressions (MWEs). Since these patterns constantly re-occur in both speech and writing, it would seem prudent to teach vocabulary to ESL learners in the manner in which words actually present themselves: in typical chunks. A common example of such a chunk would be “to deal with the problem”, in which “deal with” and “problem” are collocates. This paper contains three sections. The first examines what phrasal verbs and collocates are in the first place, and why they are particularly important for learners. The second part is a review of recent studies that support the teaching of MWEs and chunking pedagogy. This paper concludes by discussing the potential of incorporating chunking pedagogy in one’s own ESL vocabulary teaching.
Keyword(s) : collocations, chunking vocabulary, explicit vocabulary teaching, Multi-Word Expressions (MWEs), phrasal verbs
ABSTRAK
Perkataan dalam Bahasa Inggeris mempunyai corak berulangan. Corak berulangan ini boleh merupa kata kerja bergabungan*, kolokasi, dan multi-word expressions (MWE). Oleh kerana corak-corak tersebut sering bertimbul semula dalam pertuturan dan penulisan, pengajaran perbendaharaan kata kepada pelajar Bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua secara “gumpal” boleh dikatakan sesuatu yang bijak kerana perbendaharaan kata dalam Bahasa Inggeris mempunyai unsur gumpal ini. Salah satu contoh bagi idea gumpal tersebut ialah to deal with the problem, di mana deal with dan problem ialah kolokasi. Kertas ini mengandungi tiga bahagian. Yang pertama mengkaji apa itu kata kerja bergabungan* dan kolokasi, serta mengapa dua perkara tersebut sangat penting bagi para pelajar. Kemudiannnya, kertas ini melaporkan beberapa kertas kajian yang menyokong pengajaran MWE serta pedagogi “penggumpalan”. Kertas ini berakhir dengan perbincangan potensi untuk melibatkan pedagogi “penggumpalan” tersebut dalam pengajaran perbendaharaan kata Bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua.Kata kunci: kolokasi, perbendaharaan kata secara gumpal, pengajaran perbendaharaan kata secara eksplisit, Multi-Word Expressions (MWE), kata kerja bergabungan**tiada istilah yang berpadan dengan phrasal verb dalam Bahasa Melayu.
Kata Kunci : kolokasi, perbendaharaan kata secara gumpal, pengajaran perbendaharaan kata secara eksplisit, Multi-Word Expressions (MWE), kata kerja bergabungan **tiada istilah yang berpadan dengan phrasal verb dalam Bahasa Melayu
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2. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA ON GROWTH OF PINEAPPLE CV. MADU SEEDLINGS BY STEM CUTTING TECHNIQUE MOHD MIQDAM BIN JUBIDIN, MOHAMMED SELAMAT BIN MADOM & NUR AAINAA BINTI HASBULLAH
ABSTRACT
Generally, pineapple sucker is used as the main planting material for commercial cultivation of pineapple. Pineapple sucker is usually obtained either from the stalk or the stem of a pineapple plant. Research to study the effect of planting media using mineral soil as the main component for the mixture on the growth of sucker by stem cutting technique was conducted. The objective of this research is to study the effects of mineral soil-based mixed planting media on the growth of pineapple suckers produced cultivated via stem cutting of Madu pineapple. The research was conducted at the Pineapple Nursery of the Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, UMS Sandakan, from March 2019 until September 2019. The treatments used in this research were, soil as T1 (100%); Soil:coco peat as T2 (1:1,v/v); Soil:peat soil as T3 (1:1,v/v); Soil:sand as T4 (1:1,v/v). The data obtained showed there is a significant difference in the number of a successfully germinated sucker. However, no significant difference was detected for the sucker growth parameters. Planting media T3, soil: coco peat recorded the highest number of successfully germinated suckers (12.25). Meanwhile, for growing media, suggested T2 soil: peat soil were recorded the highest for root length (15.53 cm), leaf number (18.00), and stem diameter (2.18 cm) at 60 days after transplant (DAT).
Keyword(s) : Ananas comosus, Planting media, mineral soil, stem cutting
ABSTRAK
Sulur nanas digunakan sebagai bahan tanaman utama untuk penanaman nanas komersial. Kebiasaannya, sulur nanas boleh diperoleh daripada tangkai atau batang nanas. Satu kajian untuk mengkaji kesan campuran media tanaman berasaskan tanah mineral terhadap pertumbuhan sulur menggunakan teknik keratan batang telah dilaksanakan. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menguji kesan media tanaman terhadap pertumbuhan sulur nanas Madu menggunakan teknik keratan batang. Penyelidikan dilakukan di Nurseri Nanas, Fakulti Pertanian Lestari, UMS Sandakan bermula Mac, 2019 hingga September, 2019. Rawatan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah, tanah sebagai T1 (100%); tanah: sabut kelapa sebagai T2 (1:1, v/v); tanah: tanah gambut sebagai T3 (1:1, v/v); tanah: pasir sebagai T4 (1:1, v/v). Data yang diperolehi menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan bererti bagi bilangan sulur berjaya bercambah. Namun, parameter pertumbuhan tidak menunjukkan sebarang perbezaan bererti. Media T3, tanah: sabut kelapa mencatatkan bilangan sulur berjaya bercambah tertinggi (12.25). Manakala media pertumbuhan, media T2, tanah: tanah gambut disarankan kerana mempunyai rekod tertinggi untuk panjang akar (15.53 cm), bilangan daun (18.00), dan diameter batang (2.18 cm) pada 60 hari selepas pindah tanam.
Kata Kunci : Ananas comosus, Media tanaman, tanah mineral, keratan batang
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ABSTRACT
Most of the plants in the ginger family Zingeberaceae are well-known for their medicinal properties. However, the genus Hornstedtia found in Sabah is less reported. This research aims to investigate the phytochemical constituent and vitamin C content of a fruit, locally known as the Tolidus fruit in Sabah. The dried fruit sample was extracted using three solvents which were water, ethanol and methanol. The phytochemical constituents were determined using standard Colour Test for the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and tannin. Then, the content of Vitamin C was determined using the standard Colorimetric Titration and ascorbic acid as standard. The phytochemical evaluation revealed that all three targeted constituents were present in all extracts except for the alkaloid. The vitamin C content was determined in both dried and fresh sample of fruits, where 52.84 mg was quantified in the fresh fruit aqueous extract and 23.93 mg in the dried fruit aqueous extract respectively. These results are comparable to the content of vitamin C in orange and lime fruits. The phytochemical evaluation and vitamin C content of Tolidus suggested the potential of this underutilised fruit to be the natural and affordable source of vitamin C. Additionally, may protect the body against harmful free radicals. However, further analysis is needed to determine other constructive natural contents and evaluate the efficacy of this fruit as a natural source of antioxidant. Keywords: Tolidus, phytochemical, vitamin C
Keyword(s) : Tolidus, phytochemical, vitamin C
ABSTRAK
Sebilangan besar tanaman dalam keluarga halia Zingeberaceae terkenal dengan khasiat perubatannya. Namun, genus Hornstedtia yang terdapat di Sabah masih kurang dilaporkan. Penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kandungan fitokimia dan kandungan vitamin C yang dikenali sebagai buah Tolidus di Sabah. Sampel kering buah diekstrak menggunakan tiga pelarut iaitu air, etanol dan metanol. Komponen fitokimia ditentukan menggunakan piawaian Ujian Warna untuk menentukan kehadiran alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin dan tanin. Kandungan Vitamin C ditentukan menggunakan piawaian Titrasi Kolometrik dan asid askorbik sebagai standard. Penilaian fitokimia menunjukkan bahawa ketiga-tiga komponen yang disasarkan terdapat dalam semua ekstrak kecuali alkaloid. Kandungan vitamin C ditentukan dalam sampel buah kering dan segar, di mana 52.84 mg diukur dalam ekstrak buah segar larutan air dan 23.93 mg dalam ekstrak buah kering larutan air. Hasil ini setanding dengan kandungan vitamin C dalam buah-buahan oren dan limau. Penilaian fitokimia dan kandungan vitamin C dari Tolidus menunjukkan potensi buah yang kurang digunakan ini menjadi sumber vitamin C semula jadi dan berpatutan. Tambahan lagi, dapat melindungi tubuh dari radikal bebas yang berbahaya. Walau bagaimanapun, analisis lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk menentukan kandungan semula jadi yang konstruktif dan menilai keberkesanan buah ini sebagai sumber antioksidan semula jadi. Kata kunci: Tolidus, fitokimia, vitamin C
Kata Kunci : Tolidus, fitokimia, vitamin C
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ABSTRACT
A retrospective study was carried out at one selected dairy farm located in Keningau, Sabah in order to evaluate the effect of age at first calving (AFC) on the productive performance of the primiparous Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows. The retrospective data was collected from 123 Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows. AFC was classified into 7 groups such as: =22; 23-24; 25-26; 27-28 months old; 29-30; 31-32 and >32 months old, respectively. The productive performance parameters that were evaluated consisted of the first-lactation milk yield, lactation length, average daily milk yield and dry period. Cows with AFC of 23-24 and 25-26 months of age showed the highest first-lactation milk yield, 7210.14± 384.84 litres and 7053.80± 342.98 litres, respectively. Cows with AFC of 23-24 months old have also showed the longest lactation length of 410.25± 19.51 days. However, cows with AFC of 23-24 months of age produced the least average daily milk yield, that was about 17.62± 0.60 litres/day and cows that were calved at 29-30 months of age and >32 months of age produced the highest average daily milk yield, that was about 24.10± 0.94 litres/day and 24.16± 0.79 litres/day, respectively. The study showed that AFC had a significant effect on the first-lactation milk yield, lactation length and average daily milk yield of the Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows (p<0.05). However, it was found that AFC had no significant effect on the dry period (p>0.05). Overall, cows with the AFC of 23-24 months old have showed the best productive performance.
Keyword(s) : Productive performance, age at first calving, primiparous Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows
ABSTRAK
Satu kajian retrospektif telah dijalankan di satu ladang tenusu terpilih yang bertempat di Keningau, Sabah untuk menilai kesan umur beranak pertama (AFC) terhadap prestasi produktif laktasi pertama lembu tenusu kacukan Sahiwal x Friesian. Data retrospektif dikumpulkan daripada 123 lembu tenusu kacukan Sahiwal x Friesian. Umur semasa melahirkan anak pertama telah dikelaskan kepada 7 kumpulan masing-masing seperti: berusia =22; 23-24; 25-26; 27-28; 29-30; 31-32 dan > 32 bulan. Parameter prestasi produktif yang dinilai terdiri daripada hasil pertama penyusuan susu, tempoh penyusuan, purata hasil susu untuk setiap hari dan tempoh kering susu. Lembu dengan AFC masing-masing untuk 23-24 dan 25-26 bulan usia menunjukkan hasil tertinggi pertama penyusuan susu, 7210.14± 384.84 dan 7053.80± 342.98 liter. Lembu dengan AFC untuk 23-24 bulan juga telah menunjukkan tempoh penyusuan yang paling lama iaitu 410.25± 19.51 hari. Walau bagaimanapun, lembu dengan AFC untuk 23-24 bulan usia menghasilkan purata hasil susu harian dengan nilai yang terendah, iaitu sebanyak 17.62± 0.60 liter/hari dan lembu yang beranak pada umur masing-masing, 29-30 dan > 32 bulan menghasilkan purata hasil susu harian yang tertinggi, iaitu sebanyak 24.10± 0.94 liter/hari dan 24.16± 0.79 liter/hari. Kajian mendapati bahawa AFC mempunyai kesan penting ke atas hasil susu laktasi pertama, tempoh penyusuan dan purata hasil susu harian lembu tenusu kacukan Sahiwal x Friesian (p<0.05). Walau bagaimanapun, ia telah mendapati bahawa AFC tidak mempunyai kesan yang besar ke atas tempoh kering (p>0.05). Secara keseluruhan, lembu dengan AFC pada 23-24 bulan telah menunjukkan prestasi produktif yang terbaik.
Kata Kunci : prestasi produktif, umur kelahiran pertama, laktasi pertama lembu tenusu kacukan Sahiwal x Friesian
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ABSTRACT
This study explores how laboratory activity with the argumentative approach could promote students' conceptual understanding in the Hess' law energy cycle through laboratory work. Laboratory work with an argument-based inquiry instructional strategy was set up to 15 pre-university students from one of the Form 6 Centre at the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia. The laboratory work consists of a guided inquiry-based instruction with an argumentative approach in the topic of thermochemistry. The students' understanding of the energy processes was analyzed with a qualitative method using a semi-structured interview and triangulated with conversation analysis. The data collected from students' conversation during the activity was then triangulated with reflective writing at the end of the laboratory lesson. The study shows the students' prior knowledge and argumentation discourse significantly influences the development of conceptual understanding. This study emphasizes argument-based inquiry (ABIIS) in laboratory work to enhance their conceptual knowledge in the laboratory. Keywords: Argumentative discourse, Conceptual understanding, Laboratory work
Keyword(s) : Argumentative discourse, Conceptual understanding, Laboratory work
ABSTRAK
Kajian ini meneroka bagaimana aktiviti makmal melalui penggunaan kaedah penghujahan dapat mempromosikan pemahaman konseptual kepada pelajar di dalam konsep kitaran tenaga Hess’s law melalui kerja amali. Amali menggunakan strategi argument-based inquiry, telah diberikan kepada kumpulan 15 orang pelajar tingkatan enam di Pusat Tingkatan Enam , Pantai Barat Sabah, Malaysia. Kerja amali ini terdiri daripada kaedah inkuiri terarah dengan menggunakan pendekatan penghujahan di dalam topik termokimia. Pemahaman pelajar terhadap proses tenaga telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah kualitatif, temuramah separa berstruktur dan ditriangulasikan dengan analisis perbualan pelajar. Data yang dikutip daripada perbualan pelajar ditriangulasikan pula dengan penulisan refleksi pelajar di akhir kerja amali tersebut. Kajian ini menunjukkan pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar dan perbincangan berbentuk penghujahan mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap perkembangan pemahaman konsep pelajar. Kajian ini mencadangkan strategi argument-based inquiry (ABIIS) di dalam kerja amali digunakan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konseptual pelajar di dalam makmal. Kata kunci: perbincangan melalui penghujahan; pemahaman konseptual; kerja amali
Kata Kunci : perbincangan melalui penghujahan; pemahaman konseptual; kerja amali
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6. EFFECT OF FOREARM ROTATION TOWARDS CROSS-USER CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY OF FOREARM GESTURES ZINVI FU, AHMAD YUSAIRI BANI HASHIM, ZAMBERI JAMALUDIN & IMRAN SYAKIR MOHAMAD
ABSTRACT
Electromyography (EMG) is a random biological signal that depends on the electrode placement and the physiology of the individual. Currently, EMG control is practically limited by this individualistic nature and requires per session training. This study investigates the EMG signals based on six locations on the lower forearm during contraction. Gesture classification was performed en-bloc across 20 subjects without retraining with the objective of determining the most classifiable gestures based on the similarity of their resultant EMG signals. Principle component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were the principal tools for analysis. The results showed that many gesture pairs could be accurately classified per channel with accuracies of over 85%. However, classification rates dropped to unreliable levels when up to nine gestures were classified over the single channels. The classification results show universal classification based on a common EMG database is possible without retraining for limited gestures.
Keyword(s) : Electromyography, user-independent, rotation-independent, hand exchange independent, classification, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis
ABSTRAK
Elektromiografi (EMG) adalah isyarat biologi rawak yang bergantung pada perletakan elektrod dan fisiologi individu. Pada waktu ini kawalan EMG dihadkan oleh ciri perseorangan ini, dan latihan setiap sesi penggunaan adalah diperlukan. Usaha ini mengkaji isyarat EMG semasa regangan otot pada enam lokasi tunggal di lengan bawah. Pengkelasan gerak isyarat dilakukan secara langsung atas 20 subjek tanpa melatih semula sistem, dengan objektif untuk menentukan gerak isyarat yang paling mudah dikelasifikasi bedasarkan isyarat EMG yang terhasil. Analisis Komponen Prinsipal (PCA) dan Analisis diskrimina linear (LDA) adalah kaedah analisis utama. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa terdapat sebilangan gerak isyarat yang boleh dikelasifikasi dengan kejituan melangkau 85%. Namun, kadar jaya kelasifikasi jatuh ke tahap rendah apabila sembilan gerak isyarat dikelasifikasi atas satu lokasi tunggal. Secara kesimpulannya, kajian menunjukkan bahawa pengkelasan umum dengan data EMG dari satu pangkalan data umum boleh dilakukan bagi sebilangan gerak isyarat yang terhad.
Kata Kunci : Elektromiografi, ketaksandaran-pengguna, ketaksandaran-pusingan, ketaksandaran saling tukar tangan, klasifikasi, analisis komponen utama, analisis diskriminan linear
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ABSTRACT
Several studies have indicated education inequality between rural students and urban students. In language learning, students in rural areas have lower proficiency in English than those in urban areas.The aims of the present study were to investigate the perceptions,instructional knowledge and classroom practices of English teachers in teaching reading in rural areas in Sabah.An online survey was conducted on a sample of 20 secondary English teachers in a teacher professional development programme in Kudat, Sabah. The implications of these findings for future practice in rural high schools are discussed. Keywords:
Keyword(s) : rural schools,reading, teacher beliefs,authentic reading materials,ELL secondary learners
ABSTRAK

Kata Kunci :
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ABSTRACT
Existing research recognises the critical role of vocabulary in the acquisition of a second (L2) or foreign language. In the context of L2 writing, it has been established that as vocabulary size increases, so does the ability to write more effective texts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between vocabulary size and ESL students’ written performance.The participants were 69 Malaysian university students whose writing skills were assessed as part of their English course requirement. Vocabulary size was measured using Laufer and Nation (1990) Vocabulary Level Test (VLT). Performance on the VLT was correlated with writing scores as a measure of written performance. Findings indicated that a majority of participants achieved a mastery level of the 2000-word test but had difficulty in the 3000-word and 5000-word level. Participants’ vocabulary size was also found to be strongly associated with their written performance.These results elucidate the importance of vocabulary knowledge in L2 writing. The pedagogical implication of the current work calls for the integration of vocabulary in writing classrooms.
Keyword(s) : second language writing, vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary size, receptive vocabulary
ABSTRAK

Kata Kunci :
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